Saturday, July 26, 2008

Cheese Nutrients

In recent days, the overall consumption of fluid milk shows a gradual decline, with a steady increase in consumption of cheese in most of the countries. The growth of cheese consumption can be favorably compared with that of growth in milk production which is approximately 3% during 2007.


The fat content in the cheese milk is adjusted to different levels so that cheese of different varieties containing varying levels of fat can be produced. Cheese, when it is fresh has a fat content of up to 12% level. The fat content in the ripened cheeses generally range between 20 and 30%. Consumers generally prefer high fat cheeses due to high fat content and this imparts a better flavour to the cheese. The fat in the dry matter content of cheese should be at least 40-50%, like Cheddar cheese so that there will be sufficient fat in the body which contributes to the typical aroma during cheese ripening by fat breakdown or lipolysis. With increasing consumer awareness about health and ill effects of excess fats, it becomes prudent to go in for “low fat cheese varieties”.

However, the low fat cheese varieties should have sufficient fat so that it will be organoleptically acceptable. Pasteurization of milk inactivates the native lipase and hence has no role to play in the cheese ripening. It is the microbial lipases which play a predominant role in the cheese curing. The concentration of free fatty acids in cheese shoots up to 1-5 g / Kg because of liopolysis. There exists a positive correlation between the content of free volatile fatty acids and the flavour.

One need not bother about the cholesterol content of the cheese as it is rather low varying between 0-100 mg / 100 g depending on the amount of fat present in the cheese. Hence contribution of the cheese towards the cholesterol intake would be very limited to 3-4%. Cholesterol present in the diet plays a limited role to boost the blood cholesterol. The body has its own check to decrease the cholesterol synthesis when ever the dietary cholesterol level exceeds certain limit. The digestibility coefficiency of the fat found in different varieties of cheese varies between 88-94%.


The higher amount of biologically valuable proteins in the cheese adds to its nutritive value. The protein content of different varieties of cheeses generally varies between 20-35%. The protein content varies inversely with the fat content in any type of cheese. A 100 g piece of a soft cheese will meet 30-40% of the daily protein requirement of an adult human being and from 100 g of hard cheese, 40-50% can be met. During the cheese manufacture casein, the major milk protein is incorporated to 95% level in the cheese whereas most of the biologically valuable whey proteins pass into the whey portion. Hence only 75-80% of the total protein is harvested in the cheese. 4-6% of the total protein is formed by whey protein when pasteurized milk is utilized for cheese making.

The biological value of protein obtained from cheese is somewhat less than that of milk since the nutritionally superior whey proteins (containing sulphur containing amino acids) are excluded during cheese making. The PER values for cheddar cheese is 3.7 which is significantly higher than that for casein (2.5). If an index of 100 is given for the essential amino acids present in milk, then the corresponding values for the different cheese varieties varies between 91 and 97.

The biological value of protein is least influenced by the enzymes utilized during the preparation of cheese making (like rennet accompanied by acid production) or employed during ripening. The Maillard reaction does not occur in the cheese making and hence all the lysine available in milk is made available in cheese.

Some of the ripened cheeses show a higher PER values than that of milk from which it is prepared. When ultrafiltration is done to concentrate cheese milk, the whey proteins are incorporated into the cheese milk (in the ordinary process, they are lost in the whey) thereby improving the nutritive value of the cheese. The whey proteins constitute around 15% in such types of cheese. Cheese serves as a storehouse of essential amino acids, having similar proportion of essential amino acids that is present in milk except the methionine and cystine. During the ripening of cheese, part of the water-insoluble casein is converted into water-soluble nitrogenous compounds including the intermediate products of protein hydrolysis and free amino acids.

Digestion of protein is greatly improved during the curing process and hence ripening can be rightly referred to as “PREDIGESTION” step. A number of cheese varieties show an almost 100% true digestibility. As for as protein digestibility is concerned, it is better in cheese (96-97%) than in milk (92%). Small peptides are capable of passing through the walls of the intestine and it is assumed that they can penetrate through the intact cell membranes so that they are directly available for the cell. The free amino acids particularly, aspartic and glutamic acids are said to promote the secretion of gastric juices. There is no mention of food allergy arising from cheese protein.

You can have more information about nutrients at the site CHEESE NUTRIENTS

Source :

Sunday, April 20, 2008


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Sunday, March 23, 2008

Mozzarella from buffalo!

If you have plenty of buffalo milk, it is well and good and you will get a mozzarella cheese higher in its yield. But don't loose heart if you don't have that. We have cow milk all through out the globe. The composition of milk is very important to get the optimum clotting and better yield. The composition of cow milk does not suit the optimum composition that is required to prepare mozzarella.


We have to alter the composition of the cow milk in such a way that the ratio between casein and fat remains in the region of 06.8 - 0.70. This can be done either by adding the skim milk powder if the casein content is less or by adding cream or butter if the fat is lacking in percentage.

Different methods of Mozzarella making

Direct acidification method

Acidification is the prime requirement for cheese making and lactic acid is the major acid produced. This can be achieved by added or adventitious microorganisms or simply by adding lactic acid or some times citric acid extraneously.

In the direct acidification method, lactic or citric acid is added @ 15 ml of 20% lactic acid for every liter of milk. The temperature of the milk is kept at less than 5 degrees since it favors slow and steady clotting otherwise the yield and body & texture will be affected. Calcium chloride may be added a pinch to facilitate clotting; this is especially true for severely heat treated milk Then the temperature of milk is slowly raised till it is 60 degrees at which time the milk forms a coagulum.

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Friday, March 14, 2008

Maalucheese - Started Rolling!

I have not updated this blog for quite a long time. But because of the slow but steady increase in the number of backlinks, this maalucheese has got a pagerank of 1. Just to make the going smooth, I have decided to update the contents. So here we go!

We will see some of the practical aspects of cheese making.

First we will take the simple cheese making process and take the preparation of mozzarella cheese.

The mozzarella has a great history and originated in the country Italy.

Initially buffalo milk was used in the cheese making process but because of non availability of buffalo milk everywhere compelled the cheese makers to device alternative methods by using the widely available cow milk.

Buffalo milk is available in most parts of Asia and some select parts of Europe. Hence, it can be better used in preparing the mozzarella cheese in these countries.

Thursday, June 28, 2007


  • The proportion of rennet added should be the minimum necessary so as to get a firmer coagulum within 30 – 40 min duration.
  • Addition of calcium chloride or increase in the temperature at which rennet is added for coagulation may be resorted to off set the seasonal variations in the milk composition.
  • During clotting, the casein micelles, which are separate initially aggregate into a network, coalesce and finally form a granular mass.
  • Similarly, the fat globules which are separate in the beginning are forced together into a compact mass because of the shrinkage of the casein network.
  • When the rennet coagulu is cut, the surface of the fat globules is exposed and some of them are washed out as the curd is being stirred. This gives rise to a thin layer of depleted fat at the curd-granule interface.
  • During the process of matting, the layers of adjoining curd granules fuse resulting in the formation of fat depleted junctions.
  • Starter cultures or bacteria are trapped in the casein network near the fat – casein interface. This region is thought to hold highest moisture content in the mature or ripened cheese mass.

Sunday, June 24, 2007

Milk composition and cheese making - contd...

However, the curd is cooked, to expel moisture at a temperature which normally adversely affects the starter bacteria. The cheese maker must therefore exercise caution to ensure that the desired acid development in the curd is reached at about the same time as the required moisture content.

The defined starter system that is being followed in New Zealand have been based on the temperature sensitivity of the selected strains as well as on their phage resistance and acid producing ability. These defined starter systems have been widely used in U.S and Ireland and are replacing the undefined commercial mixed strain starter cultures, of the type still almost universally used for the manufacture of Dutch type cheese.

If the cooking temperature is kept constant throughout the cheese making year and standardized milk is used, the most important factor by far in producing the cheddar cheese of an uniform and defined quality is the degree of acid production in the cheese vats. To obviate the need to make up for the seasonal changes in milk composition it is normally only necessary to change the percentage of the inoculum of starter so that the required quantum acid is produced.


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